GATE 2025

GATE - Chemical

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GATE Chemical Exam Syllabus

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor series, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one-dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, Linear regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations. Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Single and multi-step methods for numerical solution of differential equations.

Section 2: Process Calculations and Thermodynamics

Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multi-component, reacting and non-reacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis.

First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and open systems. Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: Equation of State and residual properties, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium.

Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations

Fluid statics, surface tension, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, transport properties, shell balances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, equation of continuity, equation of motion, equation of mechanical energy, Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, velocity profiles, flow meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop.
Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, agitation and mixing; conveying of solids.

Section 4: Heat Transfer

Equation of energy, steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations; design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators.

Section 5: Mass Transfer

Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies; stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts; design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption, membrane separations (micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis).

Section 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering
Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, kinetics of enzyme reactions (MichaelisMentenand Monod models), non-ideal reactors; residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal reactors; kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis; rate and performance equations for catalyst deactivation.

Section 7: Instrumentation and Process Control

Measurement of process variables; sensors and transducers; P&ID equipment symbols; process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems, systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; transducer dynamics; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control.

Section 8: Plant Design and Economics

Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as heat exchangers and multistage contactors.

Section 9: Chemical Technology

Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers).

Exam Pattern


Examination Mode – Computer-Based Test (Online)

Duration – 3 Hours

Sections – 2

General Aptitude (GA) and Course Subject

Type of Questions – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions.

Design of Questions – Application, Analysis, synthesis, Comprehension, and Recall

Number of Questions

10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions

Total Marks – 100 Marks

Marking Scheme – All of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

Negative Marking

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

  • For the 1-mark question, 
  • For 2 marks question, 

There is NO negative marking for

  • Multiple Select Questions (MSQ)
  • Numerical Answer Type (NAT)

Preparation Tips

Preparing for GATE Chemical Engineering is not an easy task and if you are going with self preparation it needs a lot of discipline. There is a lot of confusion about where to start and what to read. There is always a way out of this confusion and that is what this section is all about. Read the following articles to get an idea…

Early Revision Technique

There is no substitute for early revision. You need to start early.

You really want to give yourself sufficient time to revise all that you have contemplated and ensure that you grasp it. Last moment revision is considered useless. Revise each subject as you go, and ensure that you revise it completely as this will make modification a lot more straightforward. Eventually, the best tip is to focus on and know your syllabus, and beginning early is the most effective way to accomplish this.

Vary your revision techniques

Continuously revising, for example, reading your notes regarding a topic, is probably going to be very dull. Brighten up your revision period by revising various topics and methods.

Practice old question papers

Doing revision on previous papers will test your comprehension skills. Revise all previous year’s papers as much as you can.

Draw maps and keep techniques

Drawing mind maps or other synopsis charts to test what you can revise, and afterward, really look at them on your notes. Notice where you have left out a detail or where you forgot.

Take Regular breaks in between study schedule

Take regular breaks and don’t study continuously for hours. Basically, it is very hard to study for more than half an hour and keep concentrated.

Find those days when you can do more and utilize that day. self-preparation


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