GATE 2025

GATE - Geology

Embark on a journey to mastery in Geology with GATE Coach. Our comprehensive course equips you with the knowledge and skills to excel in the GATE 2025 Geology exam.

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Test Series + Study Material

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GATE Coach comprehensive study materials prepared by India’s best educators to ace your exam preparation with all the relevant information.

Exam Syllabus

Part A: Common Section

Earth and planetary system – Terrestrial planets and moons of the solar system; size, shape, internal structure, and composition of the earth; plate tectonics – relationship with earthquakes, the concept of isostasy; propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior; Heat flow within the earth; structure, and thickness, Gravitational field of the Earth; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; continental drift;, volcanism and mountain building; continental and oceanic crust – composition, elements of seismology – body and surface waves

Weathering and soil formation: The topic includes landforms created by glacier, river, wind, ocean, and volcanoes.

Basic structural geology – Stress, strain, and material response; nomenclature and classification of folds and faults, brittle and ductile deformation.

Crystallography – Basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups. Mineralogy – silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock-forming minerals.

Petrology of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

Geological time scale; Geochronology and absolute time. Mineral, coal, and petroleum resources of India, Stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic divisions of India.

Introduction to remote sensing

Engineering properties of rocks and soils

Elements of hydrogeology

Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic, and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil, mineral, and groundwater; introductory well logging.

Part B (Section-1): Geology

Geomorphology – Tectonic geomorphology; development and evolution of landforms in continental and oceanic settings; Geomorphic processes and agents.

Structural Geology – Forces and mechanism of rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of planar and linear structures (bedding, cleavage, schistosity, lineation); shear zones, thrusts, and superposed folding; basement-cover relationship. Interpretation of geological maps; folds, faults, joints, and unconformities; Stereographic projection.

Crystallography and Mineralogy – Classification of minerals, physical and optical properties of rock-forming minerals, elements of crystal symmetry, form, and twinning; crystallographic projection; crystal chemistry.

Geochemistry – Cosmic abundance of elements; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor, and trace elements in crust and mantle; elements of high temperature and low-temperature geochemical thermodynamics; isotopic evolution of the crust and the mantle, mantle reservoirs; geochemistry of water and water-rock interaction.

Igneous Petrology – Classification, forms, textures, and genesis of common igneous rocks; magmatic differentiation; binary and ternary phase diagrams; hotspots, and large igneous provinces; major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes. Mantle plumes.

Sedimentology – Texture, structure, and sedimentary processes; Sedimentary facies and environments, cyclicities in sedimentary succession; petrology of common sedimentary rocks; provenance and basin analysis. Important sedimentary basins of India.

Metamorphic Petrology – Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks. Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade, and basic types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic, and impure carbonate rocks the role of bulk composition including fluids in metamorphism; demographic projections; thermobarometry and metamorphic P-T-t paths, and their tectonic significance.

Paleobiology – Diversity of life through time, mass extinctions- causes and effects; taphonomy – processes of fossilization. Taxonomy. Morphology and functional morphology of invertebrates; Basic concepts of ecology/paleoecology; classification – ecological and taxonomic schemes (diversity and richness). Fossils and paleoenvironments; microfossils; Vertebrate paleontology; Paleobotany.

Stratigraphy – Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation; Principles of sequence stratigraphy and applications; extra-peninsular India. Boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy; Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy Stratigraphy of peninsular 

Resource Geology – Ore-mineralogy; ore forming processes vis-à-vis ore-rock association; fluid inclusions as ore genetic tools. Coal and petroleum geology; marine mineral resources. Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits – sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods. Ore dressing and mineral economics. Distribution of mineral, fossil, and nuclear fuel deposits in India.

Global Tectonics – Plate motions, driving mechanisms, plate boundaries, supercontinent cycles.

Applied Geology – physicomechanical properties of rocks and soils; rock index tests; Rock failure criteria; shear strength of rock discontinuities; rock mass classifications; in-situ stresses; rocks as construction materials; geological factors in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels, and excavation sites. Analysis of slope stability.

Natural hazards landslide and mitigation. Principles of climate change.

Hydrogeology – Groundwater flow and exploration, well hydraulics, and water quality.

Basic Principles of Remote Sensing – energy sources and radiation principles, digital processing of satellite images, atmospheric absorption, the interaction of energy with earth’s surface, raster, and vector mode operations, aerial-photo interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR, and microwave regions, GIS – basic concepts.

Exam Pattern


Examination Mode – Computer-Based Test (Online)

Duration – 3 Hours

Sections – 2

General Aptitude (GA) and Course Subject

Type of Questions – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions.

Design of Questions – Application, Analysis, synthesis, Comprehension, and Recall

Number of Questions

10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions

Total Marks – 100 Marks

Marking Scheme – All of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

Negative Marking

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

  • For the 1-mark question, 
  • For 2 marks question, 

There is NO negative marking for

  • Multiple Select Questions (MSQ)
  • Numerical Answer Type (NAT)

Preparation Tips


Preparing for GATE Mechanical Engineering is not an easy task and if you are going with self preparation it needs a lot of discipline. There is a lot of confusion about where to start and what to read. There is always a way out of this confusion and that is what this section is all about. Read the following articles to get an idea…

Early Revision Technique

There is no substitute for early revision. You need to start early.

You really want to give yourself sufficient time to revise all that you have contemplated and ensure that you grasp it. Last moment revision is considered useless. Revise each subject as you go, and ensure that you revise it completely as this will make modification a lot more straightforward. Eventually, the best tip is to focus on and know your syllabus, and beginning early is the most effective way to accomplish this.

Vary your revision techniques

Continuously revising, for example, reading your notes regarding a topic, is probably going to be very dull. Brighten up your revision period by revising various topics and methods.

Practice old question papers

Doing revision on previous papers will test your comprehension skills. Revise all previous year’s papers as much as you can.

Draw maps and keep techniques

Drawing mind maps or other synopsis charts to test what you can revise, and afterward, really look at them on your notes. Notice where you have left out a detail or where you forgot.

Take Regular breaks in between study schedule

Take regular breaks and don’t study continuously for hours. Basically, it is very hard to study for more than half an hour and keep concentrated.

Find those days when you can do more and utilize that day. self-preparation


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