GATE 2025

GATE - Metallurgy

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GATE Metallurgy Exam Syllabus

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, Continuity and Differentiability; Partial derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line, Surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, one-dimensional heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Analysis of experimental data; linear least squares method.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear (Bisection, Secant, Newton- Raphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differential equations.

Section 2: Metallurgical Thermodynamics

Laws of thermodynamics: First law – energy conservation, Second law – entropy; Enthalpy, Gibbs and Helmholtz free energy; Maxwell’s relations; Chemical potential; Applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, ideal and regular solutions; Gibbs phase rule, phase equilibria, binary phase diagram and lever rule, free-energy vs. composition diagrams; Equilibrium constant, Activity, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams; Thermodynamics of point defects, surfaces and interfaces, adsorption and segregation phenomena.

Electrochemistry: Single electrode potential, Electrochemical cells, Nernst equation, Potential-pH diagrams.

Section 3: Transport Phenomena and Rate Processes

Momentum transfer: Concept of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, mechanical energy balance equation, flow past plane surfaces and through pipes.

Heat transfer: Conduction, Fourier’s Law, 1-D steady state conduction.

Convection: Heat transfer coefficient relations for forced convection.

Radiation: Black body radiation, Stefan-Boltzman Law, Kirchhoff’s Law.

Mass transfer: Diffusion and Fick’s laws, Mass transfer coefficients.

Dimensional analysis: Buckingham Pi theorem, Significance of dimensionless numbers.

Basic laws of chemical kinetics: First order reactions, reaction rate constant, Arrhenius relation, heterogeneous reactions, oxidation kinetics.

Electrochemical kinetics: Polarization.

Section 4: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

Comminution techniques, Size classification, Flotation, Gravity and other methods of mineral beneficiation; Agglomeration: sintering, pelletizing and briquetting.

Material and Energy balances in metallurgical processes; Principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium, copper and titanium.

Iron and steel making: Material and heat balance in blast furnace; Structure and properties of slags and molten salts – basicity of slags – sulphide and phosphate capacity of slags; Production of metallurgical coke.

Other methods of iron making (COREX, MIDRE)

Primary steel making: Basic oxygen furnace, process dynamics, oxidation reactions, electric arc furnace.

Secondary steel making: Ladle process – deoxidation, argon stirring, desulphurization, inclusion shape control, principles of degassing methods; Basics of stainless steel manufacturing.

Continuous Casting: Fluid flow in the tundish and mould, heat transfer in the mould,
segregation, inclusion control.

Section 5: Physical Metallurgy

Chemical Bonding: Ionic, covalent, metallic, and secondary bonding in materials, Crystal structure of solids – metals and alloys, ionic and covalent solids, and polymers.

X-ray Diffraction – Bragg’s law, optical metallography, principles of SEM imaging.

Crystal Imperfections: Point, line and surface defects; Coherent, semi-coherent and incoherent interfaces.

Diffusion in solids: Diffusion equation, steady state and error function solutions; Examples homogenenization and carburization; Kirkendall effect; Uphill diffusion; Atomic models for interstitial and substitutional diffusion; Pipe diffusion and grain boundary diffusion.

Phase transformation: Driving force, Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, growth Kinetics Solidification in isomorphous, eutectic and peritectic systems, cast structures and macrosegregation, dendritic solidification and constitutional supercooling, coring and microsegregation.

Solid state transformations: Precipitation, spinoidal decomposition, ordering, massive transformation, discontinuous precipitation, eutectoid transformation, diffusionless transformations; Precipitate coarsening, Gibbs-Thomson effect.

Principles of heat treatment of steels, TTT and CCT diagrams; Surface hardening treatments; Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; Heat treatment of cast iron and aluminium alloys.

Electronic, magnetic and optical properties of materials.

Basic forms of corrosion and its prevention

Section 6: Mechanical Metallurgy

Strain tensor and stress tensor, Representation by Mohr’s circle, elasticity, stiffness and compliance tensor, Yield criteria, Plastic deformation by slip and twinning.

Dislocation theory: Edge, screw and mixed dislocations, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations; Partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions.

Strengthening mechanisms: Work/strain hardening, strengthening due to grain boundaries, solid solution, precipitation and dispersion.

Fracture behaviour, Griffith theory, linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture toughness, fractography, ductile to brittle transition.

Fatigue: Cyclic stress strain behaviour – low and high cycle fatigue, crack growth. Mechanisms of high temperature deformation and failure; creep and stress rupture, stress exponent and activation energy.

Section 7: Manufacturing Processes

Metal casting: Mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, casting practices, casting defects.

Hot, warm and cold working of metals: Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming.

Metal joining: Principles of soldering, brazing and welding, welding metallurgy, defects in welded joints in steels and aluminium alloys.

Powder metallurgy: production of powders, compaction and sintering.

Non-destructive Testing (NDT): Dye-penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle inspection methods.

GATE Exam Pattern

Examination Mode – Computer-Based Test (Online)

Duration – 3 Hours

Sections – 2

General Aptitude (GA) and Course Subject

Type of Questions – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions.

Design of Questions – Application, Analysis, synthesis, Comprehension, and Recall

Number of Questions

10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions

Total Marks – 100 Marks

Marking Scheme – All of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

Negative Marking

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

  • For the 1-mark question, 
  • For 2 marks question, 

There is NO negative marking for

  • Multiple Select Questions (MSQ)
  • Numerical Answer Type (NAT)

Preparation Tips

Preparing for GATE Metallurgy is not an easy task and if you are going with self preparation it needs a lot of discipline. There is a lot of confusion about where to start and what to read. There is always a way out of this confusion and that is what this section is all about. Read the following articles to get an idea…

Early Revision Technique

There is no substitute for early revision. You need to start early.

You really want to give yourself sufficient time to revise all that you have contemplated and ensure that you grasp it. Last moment revision is considered useless. Revise each subject as you go, and ensure that you revise it completely as this will make modification a lot more straightforward. Eventually, the best tip is to focus on and know your syllabus, and beginning early is the most effective way to accomplish this.

Vary your revision techniques

Continuously revising, for example, reading your notes regarding a topic, is probably going to be very dull. Brighten up your revision period by revising various topics and methods.

Practice old question papers

Doing revision on previous papers will test your comprehension skills. Revise all previous year’s papers as much as you can.

Draw maps and keep techniques

Drawing mind maps or other synopsis charts to test what you can revise, and afterward, really look at them on your notes. Notice where you have left out a detail or where you forgot.

Take Regular breaks in between study schedule

Take regular breaks and don’t study continuously for hours. Basically, it is very hard to study for more than half an hour and keep concentrated.

Find those days when you can do more and utilize that day. self-preparation


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